No transliteration can exactly express the vocal difference between two languages. Besides the inability of the alphabets of English language representing the exact pronunciations and sounds of Arabic, there are specific difficulties in Romanizing Arabic alphabets and words. There are some characters in Arabic alphabet such as: T^`^d^ g^®^ª^¦^¢^~^x^which have no equivalent in English. In combinations of words, Arabic pronunciation does not follow the written English characters. To this category belong: ت tâ (t), ث thâ (th), د dâl (d), ذ dhâl (dh); ر râ (r), ز zâ (z), س sîn (s), ش shîn (sh) , ص sâd (s), ض dzâd (dz), ط tâ (t), ظ zâ (z), ل lâm (ن), nûn (n).  In transliteration of words we have followed the written form in Arabic for the facility of lay-reader, writing for example, Al-Rahmân instead of Ar-Rahmân. We have adopted the most common rules of transliteration recognized by Western Orientalists. The system of transliteration adopted in this book is as follows:  

Arabic AlphabetTransliteral Presentation
ا (Alif)A, a
ء (hamzah)(comma above the alphabet)
ب (bâ)b, B
ت (tâ)t, T
ث (thâ)th, Th
ج (jîm)j, J
ح  (ha)h, H
خ (khâ)kh, Kh
د (dâl)d, D
ذ (dhâl)dh, Dh
ر (râ)r, R
ز (zâ)z, Z
س (sîn)s, S
ش (shîn)sh, Sh
ص (sâd)s, S
ض (dzâd)dz, Dz
ط (tâ)t, T
ظ (zâ)z, Z
ع (‘ain)‘ (inverted comma above)
غ (ghain)gh, Gh
ف (fâ)f, F
ق (qâf) q, Q
ك (kâf) k, K
ل (lâm) l, L
م (mîm) m, M
ن (nûn) n, N
ه (hâ) h, H
و (wâw) w, W
ي (yâ) y, Y

Long Fathah: A fathah in standing or upright position over a letter sounds like a in father. It will be written as â as in Allâh “A. It is represented by â or Â

Long Kasrah: A kasrah written perpendicularly under a letter sounds like the second i in civilian. It will be written as î as in Injîl. It is represented by î or Î.   

Long Dzammah: An inverted dzammah above the letter. It sounds like u in ruby. It is represented by û or Û.  

Fathah before wâw و is pronounced like the au in taurât. It is represented by au or Au. Fathah before ي makes a diphthong like sound ai  as said. It is represented by ai or Ai.

Leave a Reply

Your email address will not be published. Required fields are marked *